Common types of cancerAugust 24, 2021 2021-08-24 14:32
Common types of cancer
Cancer that forms in the tissues of the skin. When cancer forms in cells that make pigment, it is called melanoma. When cancer forms in cells that do not make pigment it may begin in basal cells (small, round cells in the base of the outer layer of skin) or squamous cells (flat cells that form the surface of the skin). Both types of skin cancer usually occur in skin that has been exposed to sunlight, such as the skin on the face, neck, hands and arms. Most of the forms of skin cancer are highly curable. The most serious form is melanoma.
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. It is a cancer that forms in the tissues of the breast, usually the ducts (tubes that carry milk to the nipple) and lobules (glands that make milk). It occurs in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare.
Cancer that forms in the tissues of the prostate (a gland in the male reproductive system found below the bladder and in front of the rectum). Prostate cancer usually occurs in older men, and is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men.
Cancer that forms in the tissues of the colon (the longest part of the large intestine). Most colon cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).
Cancer that forms in the tissues of the rectum (the last several inches of the large intestine before the anus).
Note: Colorectal cancer (the combination of colon and rectal cancer) is the third most common cancer in both men and women.
Cancer that forms in the tissues of the bladder (the organ that stores urine). Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder). Other types include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). The cells that form squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma develop in the inner lining of the bladder as a result of chronic irritation and inflammation.
Cancer that forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages. The two main types are small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. These types are diagnosed based on how the cells look under a microscope. Lung cancer accounts for the most cancer-related deaths in both men and women. Cigarette smoking is by far the most important risk factor for lung cancer.
A form of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes (the cells that make the pigment melanin). Melanoma usually begins in a mole.
Cancer that forms in the tissue lining the uterus (the small, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman’s pelvis in which a baby grows). Most endometrial cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).
Cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys. Kidney cancer includes renal cell carcinoma (cancer that forms in the lining of very small tubes in the kidney that filter the blood and remove waste products) and renal pelvis carcinoma (cancer that forms in the centre of the kidney where urine collects). It also includes Wilms’ tumor, which is a type of kidney cancer that usually develops in children under the age of 5.
Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream.
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL): Any of a large group of cancers of the immune system. NHLs can occur at any age and are often marked by enlarged lymph nodes, fever, and weight loss. There are many different types of NHL, which can be divided into aggressive (fast growing) and indolent (slow growing) types and can be classified as either B-cell or T-cell NHL. B-cell NHLs include Burkitt’s lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, immunoblastic large cell lymphoma, precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma. T-cell NHLs include mycosis fungoides, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Lymphomas related to lymphoproliferative disorders following bone marrow or stem cell transplantation are usually B-cell NHLs. Prognosis and treatment depend on the state and type of disease.
A disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissue of the pancreas. Also called exocrine cancer.
Cancer that forms in the thyroid gland (an organ at the base of the throat that makes hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight). Four main types of thyroid cancer are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are based on how the cancer cells look under a microscope.